Current Benefits

Israel Completes World‘s Largest Solar & Thermal Electric Facility

By David Lazarus
View the original article here.

The state-of-the-art thermal electric power plant in Israel’s Negev Desert is equipped with more than 50,000 computer-controlled heliostats that produce enough power for 150,000 homes, keeping 110,000 tons of CO2 emissions out of the air per year.

The Ashalim solar and thermal electric power plant in Israel’s Negev Desert is up and running. The state-of-the-art facility is equipped with more than 50,000 computer-controlled heliostats or mirrors, which can track the sun in two dimensions and reflect the sunlight onto a boiler placed on top of a tower measuring 240 m-high (787.4 ft). That’s higher than some of the tallest sky scrapers in the world and by far the tallest solar tower ever built.

How does it work? All those tens of thousands of mirrors are hooked up to a computer operated tracking system so that they all move precisely with the orbit of the earth around the sun throughout the day and direct the heat from the sunlight to a spot on the boiler on top of the tower to within 0.0015499969 of an inch. The super hot water in the boiler produces superheated steam, which is then conveyed through pipes down below with enough pressure to spin a steam turbine-generator at astronomical speeds needed to produce electricity. The solar run generator can put out 300 megawatts of clean electricity every day, or enough to power about 150,000 homes.

Ashalim construction in 2016 – BrightSource Energy website

Ashalim construction in 2016 – BrightSource Energy website

Another feature of the Ashalim project is the use of solar thermal technology that can store energy for use at night in order to provide consistent and reliable output of electricity. This is one of the largest renewable energy projects in the world. The facility covers an area of over 3 sq. km (2 sq. miles).

Israel’s climate is ideal for solar power, particularly in the Negev which enjoys more than 300 sunny days a year. Israel has been home to many solar technology breakthroughs, but the government has been slow in getting away from using fossil fuels for power. But that is definitely starting to change with a goal getting 10 percent of its energy needs from renewable sources by 2020 with the new solar project. Once the project is proven fully successful, Israel plans to move ahead rapidly towards renewable energy sources.

Together with the recent discovery of huge deposits of natural gas along Israel’s Mediterranean Coast, the Ashalim plant will contribute to Israel’s security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel imports. It will also keep us safe by keeping 110,000 tons of CO2 emissions per year out of the air we breathe.

How IoT Plays A Role In Developing Sustainable Transportation

sustainable transportation iot
By Megan Nichols
View the original article here.

The Internet of Things is transforming the modern world in manifold ways. It’s making our homes smarter, our stores more connected and informed, our vehicles more powerful, and our equipment — especially the industrial variety — more capable.

“IoT” is a blanket term that refers to the entire network of connected devices, from smartphones to household appliances. IoT devices have the ability to connect with local or public networks to transmit, receive and process data streams. This means that, as a society, we can collect a lot more information about how our devices are operating. It also means we can interface with them remotely to do things like open a garage door or turn on a light from hundreds of feet or even miles away.

This technology offers a variety of benefits, including more efficient use of resources and improved sustainability practices. That’s especially true of the transportation sector and modern travel.

Airports and Air Travel

The IoT provides an added layer of convenience for customers and better sustainability for parent companies.

For customers, the technology can be used to improve their travel experience. Miami International Airport, for example, relies on connected smartphone applications to provide real-time information to passengers about campus events and locations, baggage claim info, boarding instructions and more.

As for airports themselves, the technology can help eliminate excess waste produced as a result of high energy use. Smart bulbs and connected light fixtures, for instance, can turn off lights in empty areas of the campus. Efficient thermostats can better regulate and coordinate air temperatures within the facility — not just for keeping people more comfortable, but also to use less power in the process.

Logistics and Public Transportation

Whether you’re talking about buses, above-ground trams, or high-speed trains, the logistics involved are incredible. A transport company must consider how much room they have, how many people have booked a trip, what’s changed — such as who’s canceled or joined — and even how much luggage or storage space is available.

But it doesn’t stop there. Vehicles need fuel, supplies, and maintenance — and they’re all directly tied to a strict and comprehensive schedule. Like you see with flights, if a bus or other transport is late, it affects the entire day’s schedule.

IoT technology can help with this by providing more nuanced and real-time details about the goings-on within a facility or transport. This provides much more oversight for transportation managers and planners, if not automating the entire field outright.

GPS modules can be used to track each transport with up-to-date stats like speed, fuel levels and arrival times. Bluetooth beacons can be used to deliver local information to customers’ phones and devices, with real-time alerts about delays or on-time schedules.

There’s incredible potential here, and the industry is definitely starting to catch on.

Smart Roads

As you’d expect, smart and connected roads can help manage traffic patterns, accident response, and other related problems. Imagine receiving traffic updates on your phone directly from the very road beneath your vehicle’s tires. Highways and street surfaces can be outfitted with advanced sensors to collect usage information, which is then fed into a municipality’s traffic infrastructure. The system would be connected to traffic lights, security cameras, smart roads and much more.

It’s essentially a comprehensive modern and smart traffic management system. Sensors could pick up the impact of an accident, for example, and report that information to a remote agency or even take action via the network. As a result, nearby drivers are informed of the crash, traffic lights are changed to reflect the issue, and vehicles are rerouted until the area is cleaned up.

The technology can also be used for public road services like tollway, bridge and tunnel management — and even parking meters in urban areas.

Smarter Parking

Imagine pulling up to a parking meter, paying your fee on a mobile app, and then exiting your vehicle to be on your way. Upon your return, you simply hop in your car, tell the meter you’re leaving and away you go. The system registers the open space and alerts other drivers nearby looking for a space. As a result, the nearby roadways remain clear and less congested.

In urban areas and bustling cities, parking can be a real problem for the entire community. It can cause traffic disruptions and delays, accidents, and even dangerous scenarios — like when a vehicle is parked in front of a fire hydrant or unauthorized area.

Disney’s new parking garages in Disney Springs, Orlando, are a great example of how parking is getting smarter. Each parking row has a series of lights that turn red or green depending on whether or not space is available. As the end of each row is a digital display that shows the number of open spaces. It’s all updated in real-time so drivers can find a space quickly without driving around aimlessly. The system can also be used to locate vehicles for guests who are lost.

Supply Chain Management

In addition to self-driving transport vehicles and fleets, various other forms of transport in the supply chain are being outfitted with IoT technologies. This includes shipping trucks, containers, boats and ships, planes and more.

This provides a great deal of insight for management crews about travel times and external factors such as traffic or weather events. As with public transport, technology can be used to make more efficient use of resources like fuel as well as cut down on overall waste. More importantly, it can be used to identify new routes, transport solutions and even operational improvements.

Smart, Connected Technologies Are the Future

In the consumer market, IoT devices can help homeowners use their power supply more efficiently by cutting down on consumption, making better use of it in general and offering several new functions. Smart thermostats, for example, can auto-regulate heating and cooling in the home to make the space more comfortable and also eliminate excess use of electricity.

The same thing is happening in transportation, only on a much greater level. When an entire public transport operation is outfitted with more efficient vehicles and fuel-measuring sensors, for instance, the impact is much larger.

This shows that IoT and related connected technologies are not just a fad confined to modern-day operations — they are absolutely going to shape the future of the world. Backed by powerful data and insights, the organizations of tomorrow will be more efficient, more sustainable and much less impactful on the environment.

Warren Buffet’s MidAmerican Energy puts in Iowa’s latest big battery project

Grand Ridge, an existing Invenergy project that combines wind power and energy storage, in Illinois. Image: Invenergy.

Grand Ridge, an existing Invenergy project that combines wind power and energy storage, in Illinois. Image: Invenergy.

View the original article here.
The US state of Iowa got its first grid-scale solar-plus-storage system at the beginning of this year, and this has already been followed by the completion of another, larger battery project in the US state this week.

Energy-Storage.news reported last week on the completion of a solar PV system at Maharishi University of Management equipped not only with solar trackers but also with a 1.05MWh flow battery.

This week, project developer Invenergy said a four month “construction sprint” had been successfully undertaken and the company has begun commercial operations of a 1MW / 4MWh lithium iron phosphate battery energy storage system.

Located at a substation in Knoxville, Iowa, the project has been executed for utility MidAmerican Energy, one of billionaire investor Warren Buffet’s companies as a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Energy. MidAmerican serves just under 800,000 electricity customers.

In a November press release, MidAmerican’s VP of resource development said the utility-scale storage system would teach lessons about “how best to use an energy storage system, and how it can serve our customers in the future,” adding that the primary purpose of the system will be to help manage peak loads on the utility’s network.

“Energy storage has the potential to allow us to retain energy when customer demand is low and release it during peak usage times. That would give us new options to manage peak loads, enhance overall reliability and help keep electric costs low and affordable for our customers,” Mike Fehr of MidAmerican Energy said.

The utility highlighted four of the main benefits of energy storage that it will explore through the application of the lithium system: flattening and managing peaks in electricity demand through storing off-peak energy for later use, reducing the required run times and capacities of natural gas peaker plants with energy storage, enhancing the value and usefulness of renewable energy through smoothing the output of solar farms before it enters the grid and improving power quality and extending the life of transformers and other grid infrastructure.

“Energy storage is still in the development stages and the economic feasibility on a larger scale is being assessed as well; however, prices are trending downward,” Mike Fehr said.

“MidAmerican Energy wants first-hand experience with the technology so we’re positioned to quickly and efficiently add it to our system in ways that benefit our customers when the price is right.”

For Invenergy, which already owns and operates four other large-scale battery systems it developed, this has been its first project as an EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) partner.

“We are excited by the new opportunities for battery storage that we are seeing around the country. We are grateful for partners like MidAmerican Energy who are seeking innovative ways to deliver value to their customers and are proud to have provided them with this solution in such a short time,” Invenergy senior VP Kris Zadlo said.

Five Financial Benefits of Using C-PACE (In Language Your CFO Will Understand…)

By Larry Derrett, Founder, EnFlux Building Solutions
You can view the original publishing of this article here.

CPACE
The C-PACE funding program has grown extensively and has the potential to become a game changer for the funding of energy efficiency projects. The market potential is immense, and the benefits of the program are compelling. But it is relatively underutilized. For the program to accelerate its growth, constant messaging is required for building owners, contractors and legislators to learn about the benefits of the program. Out of all these stakeholders, perhaps the building owner’s CFO is the most important target as they are the key decision maker when considering this type of funding.

My goal here is to provide a snapshot of the financial benefits of using C-PACE. This article is purposefully narrow in scope and is written in the CFO’s language.

C-PACE Testimonial

As of June 30, 2018, building owners have chosen the C-PACE program to fund 1,790 projects. That’s a 75% increase above the 1,020 projects closed through the end of 2016. However, it’s just the tip of the iceberg for C-PACE’s market potential. Financial decision makers all over the US have validated the benefits of C-PACE 1,790 times. That says something about the program.

“As a former CFO, I would not hesitate to recommend C-PACE to the CEO, board or investors. The benefits are compelling.”

Why? Let’s look at five reasons.                                                                     

#1. Increase Net Cash Flow from Efficiency Retrofits

C-PACE funding is repaid through a 20+ year assessment to a building which is collected similarly to traditional property taxes. This causes annual payments to be very low, especially when compared to 5- or 7-year traditional financing. As a result, energy and maintenance savings will exceed the annual C-PACE assessment for virtually any pure efficiency retrofit. In other words, if companies use C-PACE to fund pure equipment retrofits, their cash flow will increase.

The positive net cash flow can also ease the ability of commercial office building owners to pass along the costs and benefits of a retrofit to tenants. That’s because it’s easier to demonstrate savings will cover financing costs spread over 20 years versus a more traditional repayment period of ~ 7 years.

This is a win-win. Building owners receive an upgrade to the building that could last 15 to 20 years. Tenants enjoy lower overall net expenses and a more comfortable work environment.

What is outlined above is reason enough for many to use this type of funding. But that’s just scratching the surface…

#2. No Acceleration of the Assessment

The C-PACE lender is not allowed to accelerate the full amount owing even if a scheduled payment is past due. Only the unpaid amount that has been billed but not paid is recoverable. This is a very small amount when compared to the capital involved in a total debt restructuring. Therefore, it should not carry enough voting power to complicate the restructuring process.

#3. Freedom to Sell the Building

The C-PACE lender does not have approval rights regarding a sale. That’s because the assessment is an attachment to the building and becomes an obligation of the buyer. This eases how owners can optimize holdings, particularly for larger commercial real estate developers.

#4. Absence of Constraints Typically Imposed by a Lender

The C-PACE lender does not impose traditional lender protections such as quarterly reporting, maintenance of debt covenants or similar requirements. There is no need for an inter-creditor agreement and the building owner has one less creditor to deal with in case of a debt restructuring.

#5. Reduced Weighted Average Cost of Capital

This applies primarily to new construction and major renovations where the project is part of a new or restructured capital deck. The concept is simple – to the extent lower cost C-PACE funding can be used in lieu of higher cost equity (common or preferred) or traditional mezzanine debt, it lowers the overall cost of capital to building owners.

As mentioned earlier, an important element in C-PACE’s continued growth is for CFOs to understand the financial benefits of the program. You can help get the word out by sharing this article with financial decision makers in your network. If they are not familiar with C-PACE, they will appreciate the heads up. And please comment below if you have encountered additional financial drivers for embracing C-PACE.

The World’s Biggest Solar Project Comes With a ‘Batteries Included’ Sticker

By Brian Eckhouse and Mark Chediak
View the original article here.

The world’s biggest-ever solar project — a $200 billion venture in Saudi Arabia — comes with a “batteries included” sticker that signals a major shift for the industry.

SoftBank Group Corp. partnered with the oil-rich Saudis this week to plan massive networks of photovoltaic panels across the sun-drenched desert kingdom. The project is 100 times larger than any other proposed in the world, and features plans to store electricity for use when then sun isn’t shining with the biggest utility-scale battery ever made.

The daytime-only nature of solar power has limited its growth globally partly because the cost of batteries was so high. Utilities that get electricity from big solar farms still rely on natural gas-fired backup generators to keep the lights on around the clock. But surging battery supplies to feed electric-car demand have sent prices plunging, and solar developers from California to China are adding storage to projects like never before.

Cheaper Batteries

Costs are expected to drop in half by 2025 as factories ramp up battery production

“The future is pretty much hybrid facilities,’’ said Martin Hermann, the CEO of 8minutenergy Renewables LLC, a U.S. company that’s expecting to include batteries in the vast majority of the 7.5 gigawatts of solar projects it’s developing.

Affordable batteries have long been the Holy Grail for solar developers. Without them, some of the best U.S. solar markets, like California, have too much of electricity available at midday and not enough around dusk when demand tends to peak.

Wind Wins

While the solar industry has grown, it still accounts for less than 2 percent of U.S. electricity supply and has been outpaced by investments in other green technologies. Wind farms are set to overtake hydroelectric plants next year as the biggest source of renewable energy in the U.S., accounting for more than 6 percent of the nation’s electricity generating capacity, government data show.

Now, the economics of storage is shifting. The price of lithium-ion battery packs tumbled 24 percent last year, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, and the U.S. is allowing solar-dedicated storage to qualify for a federal tax credit. More utilities and local energy providers are mandating that new solar farms include batteries to store power.

Adding batteries to solar plants could revolutionize the industry. California has contemplated going all-renewable by 2045. It won’t be able to do that without storage, said Kevin Smith, chief executive officer of SolarReserve LLC, a solar project developer that uses molten-salt energy-storage technology.

More Control

“Storage just adds control,” said Logan Goldie-Scot, a San Francisco-based energy storage analyst at BNEF. “In a number of markets, you are seeing customers seeking a greater deal of control.”

By the end of 2018, it’s possible that U.S. utilities may be asking for batteries on every solar project proposed, said Ravi Manghani, an energy analyst at GTM Research. That would mean the country is about to embark on a major battery boom. Only about 1 gigawatt of storage had been installed in the U.S. through the third quarter, according to BNEF.

Several large developers already are proposing storage units as part of their projects, including NextEra Energy Inc.

Cypress Creek Renewables LLC, which builds clean-power plants, is contemplating batteries at every one of its early-stage solar projects, according to Chief Executive Officer Matthew McGovern. The company installed batteries at 12 solar farms last year.

The shift isn’t just in the U.S.

The Saudi-SoftBank project calls for an astonishing 200 gigawatts of generating capacity that would be built over the next decade or so, with the first electricity being produced by the middle of next year. Based on BNEF data, the project would dwarf the total solar panels that the entire photovoltaic industry supplied worldwide last year.

Evening Hours

A key feature of the project will be the construction of “the largest utility-scale battery” in two to three years that will supply “evening hour” power to consumers, Masayoshi Son, SoftBank’s founder, told reporters in New York this week.

Tesla Inc., the Palo Alto, California-based carmaker that’s building batteries with Panasonic at a giant factory in Nevada, will supply the storage units for a solar project in the Australian state of Victoria. Houston-based Sunnova Energy Corp. is selling solar and battery systems in Puerto Rico, where Hurricane Maria devastated the island’s power grid in September and tens of thousands of people still don’t have electricity.

China-based Trina Solar Ltd., once the world’s largest maker of photovoltaic panels, is seeking to invest 3.5 billion yuan ($556 million) in integrated energy projects this year that could include power generation, distribution grids and storage, Vice President Liu Haipen said Wednesday in an interview in Beijing. Most of the investment will be in China, but the company is exploring opportunities in Germany, Spain, Australia and Japan, he said.

Cheaper batteries are even providing a boost in the residential market for solar systems.

“It’s a game-changer,” said Ed Fenster, executive chairman of San Francisco-based Sunrun Inc., the largest U.S. installer of residential solar systems. “The demand that we’re seeing is outstripping our expectations.”

— With assistance by Stephen Cunningham, Vivian Nereim, and Feifei Shen

Mapping the Boom in Global Solar Power

By Molly Lempriere
View the original article here.

Solar power is growing faster than any other renewable energy in the world, according to new research by the IEA. But where in the world is the technology booming the most?

Solar is growing at speed in several states, including Utah, Arizona, and Nevada, and looks set to continue this trend through this year and beyond.

Solar is growing at speed in several states, including Utah, Arizona, and Nevada, and looks set to continue this trend through this year and beyond.

EMERALD SKYLINE TO DEVELOP SOLAR FARM IN SOUTHERN ARIZONA WITH RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY TO PURSUE ELECTRICAL STORAGE TECHNOLOGY.

“Solar generation and electricity storage technology are rapidly evolving sustainable energy alternatives. The combination of solar power generation and electricity storage is being utilized in projects around the world”

 May 1, 2018 from Emerald Skyline Corporation

BOCA RATON, FL, May 1, 2018 – FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Today, Emerald Skyline announced that it will develop land located in southern Arizona for the purpose of solar generation and electricity storage technology research. The project, Emerald City Solar, recognizes that both solar generation and electricity storage technologies are rapidly evolving and will continue to become more cost effective. The southern Arizona project will include research and development facilities to continue to evaluate new technologies as they emerge. It is expected that the total generation of the solar farm will continue to increase along with the value per kilowatt hour of the electricity generated as new technologies are deployed. Emerald Skyline believes the future of renewable energy is in the storage technology and will be exploring novel ways of delivering and storing energy. They have assembled a world-class team to conduct research and development to drive innovation and advanced sustainable technologies to manage surplus renewable power for use on demand and supply of power.

SOLAR FARM

The site of the solar farm development enjoys the best solar profile in the United States and is near major urban centers including San Diego, Los Angeles, and Phoenix. The electricity generated could be sold to the local electric power utility company at prevailing Power Purchase Agreement rates of about .07 per kilowatt hour (KwH). However, through the use of proven electric storage technology, the value of the electricity could be significantly increased through the selling into the power grid during peak demand periods at much higher spot market prices. Selling power in this manner is called Regulation Services.

ELECTRICITY STORAGE

Deployment of electricity storage is increasing at explosive rates and has been described by the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) as a game changer in the industry. Several new companies can provide large battery-based storage units and have the operating systems required to interact with the electricity grid. Through storing electricity and injecting the stored power into the grid during peak demand periods the cost of peaking power can be greatly reduced. By selling power into the grid during peak demand at much higher prices the value of the solar power farm can be greatly enhanced.

“As a sustainability and resiliency consulting and LEED project management firm, this partnership enables us to collaborate with a host of industry partners to not only produce energy but also to test and demonstrate the benefits of solar energy storage technologies. When electricity storage is not available, excess solar electricity is wasted. When storage is installed, the excess energy can be saved and subsequently used to reduce the use of a fossil fuel,” reports Abraham Wien, LEED AP O+M, Director of Architecture & Environmental Design for Emerald Skyline.

To find out more information about Emerald City Solar or electricity generated from renewable sources such as solar and the current development in electrical energy storage technologies for a greener tomorrow, please contact Abraham Wien at aw@emeraldskyline.com or call us 305.424.8704.

 

Promoting Elder Wellness with Artificial Light

Rod Smith

By: Rodney Smith
Director of Energy Independence for Emerald Skyline Corporation
Inventor of Bio-Light

 

Humans evolved on Earth over thousands of years before the invention of artificial light, under natural light 1conditions of sunlight, moonlight, and a relatively little bit of fire light. These natural light conditions are reflected inthe physical structure of the eye, with cones being tuned to daylight and rods to night time light conditions. Humans are diurnal (daytime) beings, while some other animals are nocturnal, so our normal pattern of wakefulness and activity is during the daytime.

There is another form of light sensor in the eye discovered more recently that does not contribute directly to sight yet plays a role in secretion of melatonin: the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC).

During the past ten years brain scientists have discovered that in addition to patterns of light being transmitted via the optic nerve to the visual center in the brain, there is also a branch that transmits data regarding light conditions to a command center in the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).

Light and the Endocrine System

2

The SCN processes the light data and sends command signals to several glands in the endocrine system to either secrete or suppress secretion of certain hormones critical to normal body function. The pineal gland, in the hypothalamus in the brain, suppresses secretion of melatonin in the presence of bright white light, specifically when the SCN has identified a narrow 10 nanometer band of light spectrum (out of 330 nanometers of human visible light spectrum) from 450 to 460 nanometers.

 

 

3

Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans

When melatonin secretion is suppressed we become more alert. Melatonin secretion normally occurs when exposure to the bright white light diminishes, e.g. at sundown, but only does so if the trigger has been set by bright white light exposure earlier in the day. Melatonin also serves as a powerful antioxidant which floods the body with natural anti-cancer agents while we sleep.1

The adrenal gland is also largely controlled by the SCN based on light conditions in an opposite way from melatonin. Cortisol secretion is stimulated in the presence of bright white light and suppressed normally at night. Cortisol serves as a wake up call to the body, raising our core body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure from a sleep state, and is also a factor in normal digestion. If the SCN does not signal the adrenal gland to secrete cortisol, we may be tired and listless. Changes in our digestive system could cause abnormal processing of foods especially carbohydrates and can be a factor in hypoglycemia associated with diabetes.3

Light and the Elderly

4People that lack exposure to natural sunlight are the most prone to have issues with mental and physical well-being resulting from abnormal hormonal secretion. Many elderly people lack adequate sunlight exposure. Furthermore the lens of the eye thickens and yellows with age, resulting in a 75% reduction in light passing through the lens by age 75. The yellowing of the lens reduces the blue end of the light spectrum where the circadian rhythm spectrum is found. The result can be sleep deprivation and the many issues that accompany it, including depression and circulatory issues, among others.

 

 

Spectral Power Density of GE "Natural Light" Fluorescent tubes

Spectral Power Density of GE “Natural Light” Fluorescent tubes

Unfortunately, traditional lighting does not provide the specific spectrum of light required between 450 and 460 nanometers for normal secretion and suppression of melatonin. Even with specialized “natural” light fluorescent tubes, the required light spectrum actually is at a low point in providing the critical spectrum while there are peaks on either side of the narrow band. The problem of proper light exposure cannot be solved by simply increasing the level of fluorescent light.

 

Spectral Power Density of LG 5630 LED at 6,500 Kelvin

Spectral Power Density of LG 5630 LED at 6,500 Kelvin

 

Fortunately, LED lighting is far more controllable in terms of light spectrum as well as in terms of dimming and low glare if well designed. Light being emitted from a source can be measured in spectral power density (SPD) at specific light spectrums measured in nanometers. It is possible to utilize LEDs in a fixture that has a perfect score of 100% SPD at the desired light spectrum. This is important, as the critical light spectrum can be passively delivered at reasonable levels of light in the ambient environment. Previously, light therapy devices required a patient to actively stare into a bright light box for two hours – which is an unpleasant experience to say the least – and not something many elderly residents can be expected to do. Delivery of the needed light spectrum passively will help assure all residents receive the desirable light and do not require active therapy.

If the LED fixture is designed as a side-lit panel, the light is indirect light and a pleasant glow to the eye, even at the higher light levels recommended by the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) for elder care facilities. With traditional lighting it is very difficult to even achieve the recommended light levels in a tolerable manner, and impossible to provide the critical light spectrum for circadian light. Assuring that elderly residents have adequate light levels to enjoy their interests and hobbies will raise their activity levels and mental engagement.

Screen Shot 2018-02-28 at 5.21.19 PM

Spectral Power Density of LG 5630 LED at 2,700 Kelvin

There is a second part to the required light. While it is critical to have the bright white light especially in the morning, it is equally important to have warmer light with less blue light later in the afternoon and in the evening. If there is only bright white later in the day, melatonin secretion will continue to be suppressed.

LED lends itself to control so with modern wireless radio frequency control systems such as ZigBee, which is an IEEE telecommunication standard widely deployed by electrical power utilities to communicate wirelessly with smart meters and appliance among others, that facilitates implementation of automated lighting controls on a facility-wide basis for such functions as circadian light scheduling. By using an LED light fixture with both bright white and warm diodes, it is possible to control the light so the bright white is provided in the morning when needed and the warm light later in the day.

This is similar to how the light from the sun changes as the evening arrives. Furthermore, a ZigBee telecommunications platform can also connect with low cost light sensors to provide ambient light data to the control system that can adjust the level of intensity of the light as well as provide the capability to control other devices such as window blinds to further reduce energy consumption. The lighting system can also be linked through ZigBee to other automated sensor and control systems, such as fire detection and security systems.

In addition to the host of wellness benefits described above, LED lights can deliver up to 85% reduction in electricity consumption as well as providing maintenance-free lighting for up to 100,000 hours. For a light fixture on 24 hours per day, such as in a hallway, 100,000 hours of operation equals approximately 12 years. Light bulb maintenance is a significant component of facility maintenance and can free-up valuable employees to perform other maintenance tasks.

Recommendations

The flexibility of control of LED technology is arriving at a time when we can put it to good use for those living primarily indoors, as the elderly do. Opportunities now exist to deploy lighting designed to promote healthy endocrine system function. New eldercare facilities should be designed from a lighting perspective to IES standards, and they can also promote wellness of residents. The improved health can delay transition from Independent Living, to Assisted Living, to Skilled Nursing or Memory Care. In addition to the benefit to residents, making the most of LED capabilities can also reduce hospital transports, resulting in healthier bottom lines for operators.

For more information contact Rodney at rsmith@emeraldskyline.com 

 

 

Footnotes:

1 The American Cancer Society www.cancer.com

2 Brainard, G.C. et al, Action Spectrum for Melatonin Regulation in Humans: Evidence for a Novel Circadian Photoreceptor, Journal of Neuroscience 21 (2001) 16, pp 6405-6412.

3 The Cortisol Awakening Response-applications and implications for sleep medicine, G.J. Elder, M.A. Wetherell, N.L. Barclay, J.G. Ellis, Sleep Medicine Review 2014 June; 18(3):215-24.

Additional Reading:

Light and Human Health: An Overview of the Impact of Optical Radiation on Visual, Circadian, and Neurobehavioral Responses, Illuminating Engineering Society, M.C. Figueira, G.C. Brainard, S. W. Lockley, V.L. Revell, R. White, TM-18-08, 2008

Lighting for Health: LEDs in the New Age of Illumination, United States Department of Energy, 2014 The Impact of Light in Outcomes in Healthcare Settings, A. Joseph, The Center for Health Design, 2006

CircadianDisturbanceinPatientswithAlzheimer’sDisease,D.A.Weldemichael,G.T.Grossberg, International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2010

Lighting and the Visual Environment for Senior Living, Illuminating Engineering Society, ANSI/IES RP-28-07, 2007

SIRT1 Mediates Central Control in the SCN by a Mechanism that Decays with Aging, H.C. Chung, L. Guarante, Cell 153, 1448-1460, 2013

The Cortisol Awakening Response in Context, A. Clow, F. Hucklebridge, L. Thorn, International Review of Neurobiology, NIH, 2010; 93: 153-75.

IoT, LEDs, lighting, and the future of workplace planning

In the real estate industry, understanding how our buildings are used is critical to understanding how to manage our buildings.

View the original article here.
By Brad Pease

blueprint

What is IoT and why is it useful to workplace planning?

IoT = Internet of Things: The interconnection of computing devices embedded in everyday objects, enabling them to send and receive data via the internet.

In the real estate industry, understanding how our buildings are used is critical to understanding how to manage our buildings. Buildings may be built of brick and mortar, but they are not static; they constantly evolve based on the needs of their occupants. People change their schedules and their locations within a building; and the people and technology that they need access to change too.

For building owners, understanding how your second highest investment (your real estate) interacts with your highest investment (your people) is critical to your company’s long-term financial success. Do you have too much space? Not enough? The right type of space? The right quality of space? These are all questions that you need a good source data to understand, and the dataset should allow you to trend how your building is used. This trending data empowers your workplace planning team to spot opportunities to make meaningful changes.

A new data source for workplace planning: IoT-connected lighting

Workplace planners need a device to collect data. Rather than adding a ton of sensors to a building – or worse, to people – designers need something that is in every room, and that indicates how the space is used. The answer is likely above you right now. It is indicating that you are present, and is tuned to the needs of your current task. The answer, of course, is the lights.

IOT lighting data can help owners establish a workplace design strategy. While this isn’t the typical use-case for lighting system data, it can be used to understand space utilization and adds a powerful dimension to workplace planning and decision making.

As every space in a building requires lighting, and the only reason we have lights is for people, lights are the ideal candidate to use as a data source; and lights don’t need a lot of added intelligence to be a great data source.  Here are three useful ways to track lighting data for workplace design:

  • Whether a light is on or off indicates if the room is occupied.
  • The number of fixtures or lighting scenes that are used in a room will indicate the type of function that is occurring in that room.
  • The total hours of fixture use can indicate the utilization of the space and, in the case of multi-use spaces, the most frequent activities that users engage in.

When all the above is tracked, trended, and analyzed, you will understand: which spaces in your building are used the most; which spaces don’t get used at all; and what type of spaces are over-used, potentially leading to resource constraint that your employees need to do their work. Trending the data across a building or campus will allow you to optimize your investment in changes to your real estate, perhaps allowing you to invest in a new way of using your space based on the best data sources available: your employees. That’s better than investing in a new building!

2

Powering LEDs through the Ethernet

The cost to implement an IOT lighting system can be reduced through the advancement in LED technology. Using LEDs reduce power consumption plus LED lights offer more options as to how to power those lights. LEDs are so efficient that it is possible to power them using an ethernet cord, eliminating a traditional power cord. Called Power Over Ethernet (POE), you can both control and power an LED light with one cord instead of two.  The cost to install a power cord is the same as the cost to run Ethernet, and it eliminates the need for wireless or additional control wires in the fixtures – which results in a lower cost of installation. And using POE, light fixtures are suddenly accessible for IoT uses because they are connected to a two-way data line.

Once you have Ethernet connectivity to every fixture, the controllability and data collection opportunities sky rocket. You don’t need smart fixtures – you need just one centralized smart controller that sends, tracks, and trends fixture use. Once connected to a cloud-based interface, facility managers and building owners are granted instant information on their building utilization. Simply add POE technology to your next lighting upgrade, and you’ll open a whole new data source for your workplace design strategy team.

3

The wellness connection: how a POE- and IOT-connected lighting system contributes to an optimal work environment

POE- and IOT-connected LED fixtures can be used to increase health and wellbeing along with optimized energy performance. LEDs can modify the spectrum of light being supplied, which in combination with dimming capability, allows a lighting designer to optimize a space for human cognitive performance.

Humans evolved outdoors for thousands of years before moving inside to work under artificial lighting. People perform better, feel better, and enjoy their surroundings more when connected to nature. And natural light has thousands of permeations a minute, and constantly changes to reflect the time of day, weather, and surrounding surface reflections.

LEDs can be tuned to match the natural cycles of daylight, with blue hues in the morning giving way to red hues in the evening. This circadian lighting pattern allows interior spaces to mimic the natural rhythms of the outdoors. Programming artificial lighting to match natural light, has proven to improve cognitive performance. It can also help building occupants to wake up, fall asleep quicker at night, and stay refreshed longer.

4

The future is bright

IoT-connected lighting is more than a technology trend; IoT-connected lighting allows us to find new uses for old things and reframe our understanding of items that were once viewed as static. Lights, their power, and their controls can provide a rich data source that will allow you to optimize your real estate and your people, which improves the future of your business. IOT-connected lighting takes the guesswork out of many real estate needs, contributing to sustainability and wellness.

Developing a Water Management Plan

PJ Picture

By Paul L. Jones, CPA, LEED Green Associate
Director, Financial Advisory Services for Emerald Skyline Corporation

Water conservation has become a major source of savings for major industrial corporations:

  • Intel is installing a water recycling project at its Ronler Acres campus in Hillsboro, Oregon. When complete, the facility will have the potential to recycle over a billion gallons of water annually while improving the quality of water that leaves the facility.
    • Since 1998, Intel has conserved more than 52 billion gallons of water. In 2015, it saved 820 million gallons of water in Oregon through water conservation efforts.
  • Cummins, the engine manufacturer, has beaten its water conservation goal – to reduce water use intensity by 33% by 2010 – by achieving a 42% reduction in the third quarter of 2016.
    • As a result, it has increased its facility water goal to a 50% intensity reduction by 2020 from a baseline of 2010. This revised goal represents a total water savings of 763 million gallons since the 2010 benchmark was established.
  • Ford Motor Co. has instituted water saving technologies at its Chicago Assembly Plant that aims to re-use 90% of water used in the pre-treatment process, reducing the need to use Chicago city water.
    • Late last year, Ford updated its manufacturing water strategy which calls for an additional 30% reduction in water use per vehicle from 2015 to 2020 along with a long-term aspirational goal of zero drinkable water use in manufacturing.
    • The company saved 10 billion gallons of water between 2000 and 2015, a decrease of 61% – by implementing new water-saving technologies in the manufacturing process.

A successful water management program starts with a comprehensive strategic plan. The process for developing a strategic plan is generally the same for an individual facility or an organization. The plan provides information about current water uses and charts a course for water efficiency improvements, conservation activities, and water-reduction goals. A strategic plan establishes the priorities and helps a site or organization allocate funding for water-efficiency projects that provides the biggest impact. Based on information from the Department of Energy, this article describes the general steps Emerald Skyline Corporation uses to create a water management plan for its clients.

Step 1 – Set an Overarching Policy and Goals

To develop a comprehensive strategic plan, the facility or organization should set specific water use reduction targets. The strategic plan should also include senior management support for water efficiency. This can be done in two ways:

  • Provide a written policy statement that ties water efficiency to the long-term operating objective of the facility or organization
  • Provide staff and financial resources to track water use, maintain equipment, and implement cost-effective water use reduction projects.

Step 2 – Access Current Water Uses and Costs

Understanding the current water uses and costs is essential to a comprehensive plan. This step involves collecting water and cost data and determining a baseline that will be used to calculate cost savings and determine overall water reduction potential associated with water-efficiency opportunities.

At the facility level, this task includes performing the following steps:

  • Determine the marginal per-unit cost of water and sewer service
  • Verify the appropriate rate structure is applied
  • Identify services the utility might provide to help manage water efficiently.

Utility information should include the following for potable and non-potable water, we obtain:

  • Contact information for all water and wastewater utilities
  • Current rate schedules and alternative schedules that are appropriate for a particular use or facility type to ensure the best rate
  • Copies of water and sewer bills for the past two years to identify inaccuracies and ensure the appropriate rate structure is applied
  • Information about rebates or technical assistance from the utilities to help with facility water planning and implementing water-efficiency programs. Energy utilities often offer assistance with water-efficiency programs
  • Production information if the facility produces its water or treats its own wastewater, or both.

After collecting water use data, we take the following steps:

  • Determine a baseline annual water use for a specific year or an average water use over several years. If monthly data are available, plot the monthly use over time. Is water use increasing, decreasing, or steady?
  • Try to determine what caused the major trends. Is there a seasonal pattern to water use? This is often the case when irrigation water is used or cooling water demand increases in the summer months. Analyzing the data in this way will help you understand current water use trends.

At the organization level, this step involves collecting detailed water use and cost data and real property inventory from all sites. When collecting this information, consider that you need to separately gather data about potable water use and industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water use (primarily non-potable water) that is associated with reduction targets.

Step 3: Develop a Water Balance

An important step in creating a water management plan is to establish a water balance for the facility or organization. A water balance compares the total water supply baseline (determined in Step 2) to water that is used by equipment and applications.

Estimate Water End Uses

 

Determining water use at the equipment or application level can be challenging. Most facilities have metered data for total water supply but may have limited or no sub-metering data about component uses. The following five steps outline the process for determining water use at the equipment level:

 

  • We create an inventory of all water-using activities using the Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP) best management practices(BMPs) list as a starting place to identify major equipment types (available upon request from Emerald Skyline Corp. or at the following link: https://energy.gov/eere/femp/best-management-practices-water-efficiency). During the audit, we tap the expertise of others at the facility who have direct knowledge of building mechanical systems and process equipment to generate a complete inventory.
  • We perform a walk-through audit of the facility to identify all significant water-using processes and associated operating characteristics. As part of the walk-through audit, we note the operating schedule, flow rate, model number, and condition for each piece of equipment. If need be, we also use a bucket and stopwatch and make a quick, rough estimate of equipment flow rate (e.g., faucets, showerheads, and once-though cooling). During the walk-through, we pay particular attention to drain lines that are plumbed to floor drains in building mechanical spaces and utility chases.

 

 

We trace these back to the originating equipment to make sure they are accounted for in the water balance.

 

  • For all water uses in the inventory, we obtain any available sub-metered data to help quantify the particular uses
  • Evaluate any seasonal patterns and compare them to the inventory of uses. Are any uses seasonal, such as cooling tower use or irrigation? The seasonal pattern of water use (peak use) can help quantify these uses
  • For unmetered water end uses, we create engineering estimates of water use. For example, estimate:
  • Water use from plumbing fixtures (toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads) based on the number of occupants and daily use per occupant
  • Cooling tower use based on cooling capacity and load factor (see BMP #10)
  • Irrigation water use based on irrigated area and inches of water applied
  • Operating equipment water use based on water use per cycle and frequency of cycles.

Develop the Water Balance

 

We can now create a water balance with the quantified water uses by major equipment type. Compare the sum of the end-use water consumption to the total supply. The difference between these two values represents the “losses” in the system (see figure). These losses may be a result of:

 

  • Water leaks in the distribution system or equipment
  • Inaccuracies in the engineering estimates used to determine equipment water use
  • Accounting errors such as poorly calibrated meters or unit conversion problems. If the losses are more than 10% of the total water supply, further investigation is probably warranted to determine the cause of the imbalance. This may include a comprehensive leak detection program.

This process will enable us to uncover the high-water-use activities, which will help you prioritize water-saving opportunities.

Step 4 – Assess Water Efficiency Opportunities and Economics

Based on the outcome of the water balance, the next step is to find ways to increase water efficiency and reduce water use. Use the FEMP BMPs for water efficiency as a starting point to identify operations and maintenance, retrofit, and replacement options for:

 

After we identify the water efficiency opportunities, we perform an economic analysis to determine if the projects are life cycle cost-effective. In this analysis, use the marginal water and sewer rates identified in step 2. We also include other related costs, such as energy and operations and maintenance changes, which resulted from the measure. For example, faucet and shower head retrofits save energy by reducing hot water use (and the electricity to heat the water).

We use the Building Life Cycle Cost Programs software to determine the economics of energy and water projects. Also, we determine the annual escalation rate of the marginal cost of water to escalate water costs in the future.

We ensure water supply, wastewater, storm water issues, and water efficiency BMPs are taken into account at the earliest stages of planning and design for renovation and new construction.  We recommend developing equipment specifications that target water-efficient products so they are automatically purchased for retrofits, renovations, and new construction. As an example, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center implemented a product specification for water-efficient plumbing products.

Step 5- Develop an Implementation Plan

After identifying water efficiency projects that you want to pursue, we build an implementation plan which you may want to use this plan to:

  • Assign teams to be responsible for implementation
  • Prioritize projects based on targeted end uses
  • Project a date for installing efficiency measures
  • Project annual water use based on implemented efficiency projects
  • Identify potential funding sources. 

The implementation plan should predict if water goals can be met by the site or organization by implementing cost-effective water-efficiency measures. The plan should also include education and outreach efforts for the building occupants to help reduce water use.

 

Often, a major hurdle in the planning process is finding funding for projects. Emerald Skyline will work on your behalf to identify sources of water efficiency rebates and project financing. 

Step 6 – Measure Progress

 

Afterwards, as evidenced by the reports of Intel, Cummins and Ford, it is important to regularly review the strategic plan to make sure measures are implemented and goals are realistic and are being accomplished.

 

A key element of good water management is tracking water use. Install sub-meters on water-intensive processes, such as cooling towers and irrigation systems, to help manage these processes better and meet annual reporting requirements. You should assign someone to be responsible for tracking ongoing water use. Continue to plot total water use as new water bills become available. Also plot any available sub-metered data. Evaluate trends and investigate and resolve any unexpected deviations in water use. Track water use reductions and publicize your success.

 

Step 7 – Plan for Contingencies

Consider including water emergency and drought contingency plans that describe how your facility or organization will meet minimum water needs during emergency, drought, or other water shortages. Consider assessing the site for future water availability risks that are associated with climate change. At the organization level, this information can be used to target sites that have or may have water availability risks to help prioritize sites for funding water-efficiency projects.

 

Information Source

 

The Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy within Federal Energy Management Program provides a detailed description for the development of a Water Management Plan (https://energy.gov/eere/femp/developing-water-management-plan) including Best Management Practices (“BMP”) water efficiency. The information provided is appropriate for both private and public facilities.